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Artificial Intelligence Tutorial

What is Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

After the invention of computers, their capability to perform various tasks went on growing exponentially.

Scientists have developed the power of computer systems to make them capable for diverse working domains, their increasing speed, and reducing size with respect to time.

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Computer Science mainly focuses to create the computers or machines as intelligent as human beings.


What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a term of Computer Science which is also sometimes called machine intelligence. It is a specific intelligence demonstrated by machines, instead of the natural intelligence displayed by humans.

The term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines i.e. computers which mimic "cognitive" functions which are generally associated with human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving.

Artificial Intelligence consists of two words Artificial and Intelligence. Here, Artificial means "man-made," and intelligence means "thinking and decision making power", hence AI means "a man-made thinking and decision making power."

So, we can define AI as a branch of computer science which can create intelligent machines which are capable to behave like humans, think like humans, and able to make decisions like humans.

John McCarthy is known as the father of Artificial Intelligence. In his own words artificial intelligence is defined as “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.

Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or software which can think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.

Artificial Intelligence is based on the study of human brains as how human brain thinks, and how humans learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem. After using the outcomes of this study, scientists develop intelligent software and systems.

We can classify artificial intelligence into three different types of systems:
  • Analytical intelligence
  • Human-inspired intelligence
  • Humanized artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence Levels

We can categorize Artificial Intelligence level in two categories:

  • Weak AI / Narrow AI: It is also known as narrow AI. The weak AI is designed and trained for a particular task. It is best only for specific tasks.

    Example: Virtual personal assistants, i.e. Apple's Siri, are the forms of weak AI.

  • Strong AI: Strong AI is also known as artificial general intelligence. It is an AI system with generalized human cognitive abilities. The strong AI system is able to find a solution for unfamiliar problems without human intervention.

    Example: Particular strong AI applications i.e. expert systems, speech recognition, and machine vision are the example of strong AI.


Subjects used in Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a part of computer science but it is not only related to computer science only. It is so vast and consists of other subjects. As intelligence is an intangible part of our brain which is a combination of reasoning, learning, problem-solving perception, language understanding, etc. so, to achieve the above factors for a machine or software, Artificial Intelligence includes the following discipline:

  • Mathematics
  • Logical Reasoning
  • Statistics
  • Biology
  • Psychology
  • Sociology
  • Computer Science
  • Neurons Study

Goals of Artificial Intelligence

  • Replicate human intelligence and do their tasks
  • Store information and knowledge and act as a mentor or tutor
  • Provide an intelligent connection of perception and action
  • Build a machine which can perform tasks that requires human intelligence i.e. proving a theorem, playing chess, surgical operation, drive a car in traffic
  • Creating some system which can exhibit intelligent behavior, learn new things by itself, demonstrate, explain, and can advise to its user.

Advantages of Artificial Intelligence

A list of most important and prominent advantages of Artificial Intelligence:

  • Highly Accurate and Efficient: AI machines are highly accurate and efficient as they take decisions as per pre-experience or stored information.
  • High-Speed: AI machines are very fast in the case of fast-decision making. Because of this high speed of decision making, they can beat a chess champion in the Chess game.
  • Highly Reliable: AI machines are highly reliable and can perform the same action multiple times with high accuracy.
  • Best for risky areas: AI machines can be best for the risky situations such as defusing a bomb, exploring the ocean floor, where to employ a human can be risky.
  • Work as a Digital Assistant: Artificial intelligence can be used as digital assistant to the users. This technology is currently used by various E-commerce websites to show the products as per customer’s requirements.
  • Work as a public utility and welfare: Artificial intelligence can be very useful for public utilities such as self-driving cars to make our journey safer and hassle-free, facial recognition for security purpose, natural language processing for communication in different human-language without any bar , etc.

Disadvantage of Artificial Intelligence

Although artificial intelligence is going to be very much helpful for the human being but every technology has some disadvantages.

A list of some disadvantages of AI:

  • Highly Expensive: The AI machines are very expensive because the hardware and software requirement of AI is very costly as it requires lots of maintenance to meet current world requirements.
  • Work Limitations: AI machines cannot work out of the box. These machines can only do that work for which they are trained, or programmed.
  • No feelings and emotions: AI machines can be an outstanding performer, but still they don’t have the feeling. They don’t have any kind of emotional attachment with human, and may sometime be harmful for users if the proper care is not taken.
  • Increase dependency on machines: AI machines are shrinking the mental capabilities of humans because with the increment of technology; people are getting more dependent on devices.
  • Not Original Creativity: Humans can imagine things and some new ideas but still AI machines cannot beat this power of human intelligence and cannot be creative and imaginative.